Behavioral Science and Climate Change 6/22/20 

Behavioral Science

      Behavior Analysis

Austin, J., Hatfield, D.B., Grindle, A.C., & Bailey, J.S. (1993). Increasing recycling in office environments: The effects of specific, informative cues. J. of Applied Behavior Analysis. 26(2), 247-253.

Chance, P. & Heward, W.L. (2010). Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge. The Behavior Analyst, 33(2), 197–206.

Geller, E.S. (1989). Applied Behavior Analysis and Social Marketing: An Integration for Environmental Preservation. Journal of Social Issues, 45(1), 17-36.

Grant, L.K. (2011). Can We Consume Our Way Out of Climate Change? A Call for Analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 34(2), 245–266.

Lehman, P.K. & Geller, E.S. (2004). Behavior Analysis and Environmental Protection: Accomplishments and Potential for More. Behavior and Social Issues, 13, 13-32.

Nevin, J. (2005). The inertia of affluence. Behavior and Social Issues, 14, 7-20.

Newsome, W.D. & Alavosius, M.P.  (2011). Toward the Prediction and Influence of Environmentally Relevant Behavior: Seeking Practical Utility in Research. Behavior and Social Issues, 20, 44-71.

Yoeli, E., Budescu, D. V., Carrico, A.R., Delmas, M. A., DeShazo, J. R., Ferraro, P. J., & Weber, E. U. (2017). Behavioral science tools to strengthen energy & environmental policy. Behavioral Science and Policy 3(1), 69-71.

     Behavior Change (General)

Adhikari D. (2016). Exploring the differences between social and behavioral sciences. Behavioral Development Bulletin 21(2), 128-135.

Attari, S.Z., Dekay, M.L., Davidson, C.I., & de Bruin, W. B. (2011). Changing household behaviors to curb climate change: How hard can it be? Sustainability, 4 (1), 9 – 11.

Bobrow, E. (2018, Oct. 16.) Fight Climate Change with Behavior Change. Behavioral Scientist

Dornton, A. (2008) Practical Guide: An overview of behaviour change models and their uses. 45pp. Government Social Research Unit, HM Treasury, UK.

Flesher, J. & Swanson, E. (2019). Would you change your behavior for the planet? It’s complicated. Published: September 27, 2019 at 12:47 p.m. UPDATED: September 27, 2019 at 12:48 p.m.

Heller, K. (2019). Solution Search: Climate Change Needs Behavior Change. Local solutions for a global challenge. Arlington, VA: Rare.

Kwon, H.R. & Silva, E.A. (2019). Mapping the Landscape of Behavioral Theories: Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Planning Literature. 1-19.

RARE and California Environmental Associates. (2019). Changing Behaviors to Reduce U.S. Emissions: Seven Pathways to Achieve Climate Impact. Arlington, VA: Rare.

RARE and The Behavioural Insights Team. (2019). Behavior Change for Nature: A Behavioral Science Toolkit for Practitioners. Arlington, VA: Rare.

The National Science and Technology Council (2015). Social and Behavioral Sciences Team 2015 Annual Report, Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council.

The National Science and Technology Council. (2016). Social and Behavioral Sciences Team 2016 Annual Report, Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council.

Mols, F., Haslam, S.A., Jetten, J., & Steffen, N.K. (2015). Why a nudge is not enough: A social identity critique of governance by stealth. European Journal of Political Research 54, 81–98.

OECD (2017). Behavioral Insights and Public Policy. Lessons from Around the World.

Rosnick, D. & Weisbrot, M. (2006). Are Shorter Work Hours Good for the Environment? A Comparison of U.S. and European Energy Consumption. Center for Economic and Policy Research, December. Google Scholar

World Bank (2015). World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society, and Behavior. Washington, D.C. World Bank.                doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-0342-0

     Behavioral Design

B.J. Fogg (2019). Tiny Habits: The Small Changes that Change Everything. Virgin Books, UK. 307pp.

Faulstich-Hon, M., E. Sherman, & G. Smith (2019).  Act to Adapt: Behavioral Design for Climate Adaptation. Ideas42 report.

     Behavioral Insights

Costa, D. L. & Kahn, M.E. (2013). Energy Conservation “Nudges” and Environmentalist Ideology: Evidence from a Randomized Residential Electricity Field Experiment. Journal of the European Economic Association June 2013 11(3),680–702.

Egan, M. Nudge Database v1.2. University of Sterling. social-sciences/research/documents/Nudge-Database-1.2.pdf (last visited Jan. 19, 2020).

House, J. & Lyons, E. (2013). Towards a Taxonomy of  Nudging Strategies. Rotman School of Management. University of Toronto.Google Scholar

Kaplan, B.A., Gelino, B.W., & Reed, D.D. (2018). A behavioral economic approach to green consumerism: Demand for reusable shopping bags. Behavior and Social Issues 27, 20-30.

Kuehnhanss, C.R. (2019). The challenges of behavioural insights for effective policy design, Policy and Society 38:1, 14-40, DOI: 10.1080/14494035.2018.1511188

Ly, K. & Soman, D. (2013). Nudging Around the World.Rotman School of Management. University of Toronto. Google Scholar

Madrian, B.C. (2014). Applying Insights from Behavioral Economics to Policy Design. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 20318 http://www.Nber.Org/Papers/W20318

Mols, F., Haslam, S.A., Jetten, J., & Steffen, N.K. (2015). Why a nudge is not enough: A social identity critique of governance by stealth. European Journal of Political Research 54, 81–98.

OECD (2017). Behavioral Insights and Public Policy. Lessons from Around the World.

Rosnick, D. & Weisbrot, M. (2006). Are Shorter Work Hours Good for the Environment? A Comparison of U.S. and European Energy Consumption. Center for Economic and Policy Research, December. Google Scholar

Soman, D. (2015). The 1-2-3-4’s of Behavioural Insights. Behavioural Economics in Action @ Rotman (@UofT_BEAR).  Adapted from: The Last Mile: Creating Social and Economic Value from Behavioural Insights(University of Toronto Press, 2015)

UK Cabinet Office and Institute for Government (2010). Dolan, P. et al. (2010) MINDSPACE: Influencing Behavior through Public Policy.

UNEP (2017). Consuming Differently, Consuming Sustainably: Behavioral Insights for Policymaking.

     Decision-Making/Cognitive Science

Attari, S.Z., DeKay, M.L., Davidson, C.I., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2010). Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings. PNAS 107(37), 16054–16059.

Kahan, D. (2013). Ideology, motivated reasoning, and cognitive reflection. Judgment and Decision Making, 8(4), 407–424.

Kahneman, D. (2003). Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioral Economics. The American Economic Review. Dec. 2003, 1449-1475.

Matthies, E., Klöckner, C.A., & Preißner, C.L. (2006). Applying a Modified Moral Decision Making Model to Change Habitual Car Use: How Can Commitment be Effective? Applied psychology: an international review 55(1), 91–106.

van der Linden, S. (2018). Warm glow is associated with low-but not high-cost sustainable behavior. Nature Sustainability 1, 28-30.


APA (2009). Psychology & Global Climate Change: Addressing a Multifaceted Phenomenon and Set of Challenges.

Bain, P.G., Hornsey, M. J., Bongiorno, R., & Jeffries, C. (2012). Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers. Nature Climate Change.

Bain, P., Milfont, T., & Kashima, Y. et al. (2016) Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world. Nature Climate Change 6, 154–157.

Bamberg, S. & Möser, G. (2007). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology 27, 14–25.

Evans, G.W. (2019). Projected Behavioral Impacts of Global Climate Change. Ann Rev. Psych. 70, 449-474.

Feinberg, M. & Willer, R. (2012). The Moral Roots of Environmental Attitudes. Psychological Science OnlineFirst, published on December 10, 2012 as doi:10.1177/0956797612449177

Geiger, N., Swim, J.K., & Fraser, J. (2017). Creating a climate for change: Interventions, efficacy and public discussion about climate change, Journal of Environmental Psychology. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.03.010

Gifford, R. (2011). The Dragons of Inaction: Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation. American Psychologist 66(4), 290–302.

Gollwitzer, P.M. (1999). Implementation Intentions: Strong Effects of Simple Plans. The American Psychologist 54(7), 493-503.

Hardisty, D.J, Johnson, E.J., & Weber, E.U. (2009). A dirty word or a dirty world? Attribute framing, political affiliation, and query theory. Psychological Science 1-7DOI:10.1177/0956797609355572

Iweka, O., Liu, S., Shukla, A. & Yan, D. (2019). Energy and behaviour at home: A review of intervention methods and Practices. Energy Research & Social Science 57, 101238.

Lacroix, K. & Gifford, R. (2018). Psychological Barriers to Energy Conservation Behavior: The Role of Worldviews and Climate Change Risk Perception. Environment and Behavior 50(7), 749-780.

Markowitz, E.M. & A. F. Shariff (2012). Climate Change and Moral Judgment. Nature Climate Change. 2, 243-247. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1378

Osbaldiston, R. & Schott, J.P. (2012). Environmental Sustainability and Behavioral Science : Meta-Analysis of Proenvironmental Behavior Experiments. Environment and Behavior 44, 257.  DOI: 10.1177/0013916511402673

Pitchert, D., & Katsikopoulos, K.V. (2008). Green defaults: Information presentation and pro-environmental behavior. J of Environmental Psychology 28, 63-74.

Schultz, P.W., Gouveia, V.V., Cameron, L.D., Tanhka, G., Schmuck, P. & Franek, M. (2005). Values and their relationship to environmental concern and conservation behavior. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 36 (4), 457-475.

Schultz, W. (2013). Strategies for Promoting Proenvironmental Behavior: Lots of Tools but Few Instructions. European PsychologistDOI: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000163

Van Boven, L, Ehret, P.J, & Sherman, D.K. (2018). Psychological Barriers to Bipartisan Public Support for Climate Policy. Perspectives on Psychological Science 13(4), 492–507.

Weber, E. (2018) Perception Matters: The Pitfalls of Misperceiving Psychological Barriers to Climate Policy. Perspectives on Psychological Science 13(4), 508–511.

Weir, K. (2019) Confronting the climate crisis. Monitor 50(10), 28.

Zaval, L., Markowitz, E.M., & Weber, E.U. (2015). How Will I Be Remembered? Conserving the Environment for the Sake of One’s Legacy. Psychological Science 1-6. doi:10.1177/0956797614561266

     Social Psychology

Broomell, S.B.,  David V. Budescu, D.V., & Por, H-H(2015). Personal experience with climate change predicts intentions to act. Global Environmental Change 32, 67-73.

Feygina, I., Jost, J., & Goldsmith, R. (2010). System Justification, the Denial of Global Warming, and the Possibility of “System-Sanctioned Change” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36(3), 326–338.

Fienberg, M. & Willer, R. (2012). The Moral Roots of Environmental Attitudes. Psychological Science 1-7. doi:10.1177/0956797612449177

Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B.A. (2009). Liberals and Conservatives Rely on Different Sets of Moral Foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96(5), 1029–1046.

Guy, S., Kashima,Y., Walker, I., & O’Neill, S. (2014). Investigating the effects of knowledge and ideology on climate change beliefs. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 44, 421–429.

Hornsey, M.J., Harris, E.A.,  Bain, P.G., & Fielding, K.S. (2016). Meta-analyses of the determinants and outcomes of belief in climate change. Nature Climate Change 6, 622-626.

Maki, A. & Rothman, A.J. (2016). Understanding proenvironmental intentions and behaviors: The importance of considering both the behavior setting and the type of behavior. J of Social Psychology 157(5), 517–531.

Schneider, C.R., Zaval, L., Weber, E.U., & Markowitz, E.M. (2017). The influence of anticipated pride and guilt on pro-environmental decision making. PLOS One

Wolsko, C., Ariceaga, H., & Seiden, J. (2016). Red, white, and blue enough to be green: Effects of moral framing on climate change attitudes and conservation behaviors. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 65, 7-19.

     Social Capital

Putnam, R.D. (1995). Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Journal of Democracy, January 1995, 65-78.

Siisiäinen, M. (2000). Two Concepts of Social Capital: Bourdieu vs. Putnam. Paper presented at ISTR Fourth International Conference "The Third Sector: For What and for Whom?" Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland July 5-8, 2000.

     Social Norms

Abrahamse, W., & Steg, L. (2013). Social influence approaches to encourage resource conservation: A meta-analysis. Global Environmental Change 23, 1773–1785.

Allcott, H. (2011).  Social norms and energy conservation. J of Public Economics. 95 (9-10), 1082-1095.

Bloodhart, B., Maibach, E., Myers, T., & Zhao, X.  (2015). Local Climate Experts: The Influence of Local TV Weather Information on Climate Change Perceptions. PLOS ONEDOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0141526

Doherty, K.L, & Webler, T.N. (2016). Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions. Nature Climate Change 6, 879–884. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE3025

Gillingham, K. & Bollinger, B. (2019). Social Learning and Solar Photovoltaic Adoption. Available at:

Mortensen, C., Neel, R., Cialdini, R., Jaeger, C.  Jacobson, R., & Ringel, M. (2019). Trending Norms: A Lever for Encouraging Behaviors Performed by the Minority. Social Psychological and Personality Science 10(2), 201-210.

Myers, T., Roser-Renouf, C., Maibach, E., & Anthony Leiserowitz (2017). Exposure to the Pope’s Climate Change Message Activated Convinced Americans to Take Certain Activism Actions. Global Challenges 1, 1600019.

Nolan, J.M., Schultz, P.W., Cialdini, R.B., Goldstein, N.J., & V. Griskevicius (2008).  Normative Social Influence is Underdetected. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34(7), 913-923.

Schultz, P.W., Nolan, J.M., Cialdini,R.B., Goldstein, N.J., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms. Psychological Science 18 (5), 429-434.

Sparkman, G. & Walton, G.M. (2010). Dynamic Norms Promote Sustainable Behavior, Even if It Is Counternormative. Psychological Science 28(11), 1663–1674.

Weber, E. (2016). What shapes perceptions ofclimate change? New research since 2010. WIREs Climate Change 7, 125–134. doi: 10.1002/wcc.377

     Organizational Behavior

Glisson, C.  (2015). The Role of Organizational Culture and Climate in Innovation and Effectiveness, Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 39(4), 245-250, doi: 10.1080/23303131.2015.1087770

     Theory of Planned Behavior

Yadav, R. & Pathak, S.G. (2017). Determinants of Consumers' Green Purchase Behavior in a Developing Nation: Applying and Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior. Ecological Economics 134, 114-122.

Yurieva, A., Mehdi, D., Paill, P., Boirala, O., & Guillaumie, L. (2020). Pro-environmental behaviors through the lens of the theory of planned behavior: A scoping review. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 155, 104660.

Other Social Sciences


Burns, T. and Roszkowska, E. (2016). Rational Choice Theory: Toward a Psychological, Social, and Material Contextualization of Human Choice Behavior. Theoretical Economics Letters 6, 195-207. Published Online April 2016 in SciRes.

     Behavioral Economics

Deaton, A. (2010). Instruments, Randomization, and Learning About Development. Journal of Economic Literature 48, 424–455.

Deaton A. & Cartwright, N. (2018). Understanding and misunderstanding randomized controlled trials. Social Science & Medicine 210, 2–21.

Ebeling, F. & Lotz, S. (2015).  Domestic uptake of green energy promoted by opt-out tariffs. Nature Climate Change 5, 868-871. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2681

Fry, B.S. & Eichenberger, R. (1994). Economic Incentives Transform Psychological Anomalies. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 23, 215-234.

Illiashenko, P. (2017). Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics. International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics 6 (1),77-81.

Ly, K., Mažar, M., Zhao, M. & Soman. D. (2013). A practitioner’s guide to nudging. Research Report Series Behavioural Economics in Action. Rotman School of Management University of Toronto.  March, 2013. Google Scholar

Samson, A. (Ed.), (2017). The Behavioral Economics Guide. Behavioral Science Solutions. 175pp.

     Political Science

Benegal, S.D., & Scruggs, L.A. (2018). Correcting misinformation about climate change: the impact of partisanship in an experimental setting. Climatic Change.

Guy, S., Kashima,Y., Walker, I., & O’Neill, S. (2014). Investigating the effects of knowledge and ideology on climate change beliefs. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 44, 421–429.

Obravoditch, N., & Guentherz, S.M. (2016). Collective responsibility amplifies mitigation behaviors. Climatic ChangeDOI 10.1007/s10584-016-1670-9


Dietz, T., Gardner, G.T., Gilligan, J., Stern, P.C., & Vandenbergh, M.P. (2009). Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions. PNAS 106(44), 18452–18456.


     Marketing/Social Marketing

Brennan, L. & W. Binney (2008). Fear, guilt, and shame appeals in social marketing. Journal of Business Research, 63(2), 140-146.

Brough, A.R., Wilkie, J.E.B., Ma, J., Isaac, M.S., & Gal, D. (2016).  Is Eco-Friendly Unmanly?The Green-Feminine Stereotype and ItsEffect on Sustainable Consumption. Journal of Consumer Research 43, 568-582. DOI: 10.1093/jcr/ucw044

Green, K.M., Crawford, B.A., Williamson, K.A., & DeWans, A.S. (2019). A Meta-Analysis of Social Marketing Campaigns to Improve Global Conservation Outcomes. Social Marketing Quarterly, 1-19. DOI: 10.1177/1524500418824258

Rothschild, M.L. (1999). Carrots, Sticks, and Promises: A Conceptual Framework for the Management of Public Health and Social Issue Behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 24-37.

White, K., Habib, R. & Hardisty, D.J. (2019). How to SHIFT Consumer Behaviors to be More Sustainable: A Literature Review and Guiding Framework. Journal of Marketing 83(3), 22-49.

     Climate Communication

Braman, D., Kahan, D.M., Peters, E., Wittlin, M., & Slovic, P. (2012). The Polarizing Impact of Science Literacy and Numeracy on Perceived Climate Change Risks, Nature Climate Change 2, 732–735.

Center for Research on Environmental Deci­sions (2009). The Psychology of Climate Change Communica­tion: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested

Corner, A., Roberts, O., Chiari,S., Völler, S., Mayrhuber, E.S., Mandl, S.,  and Monson, K (2015). How do young people engage with climate change? The role of knowledge, values, message framing, and trusted communicators. WIREs Climate Change 6, 523–534. doi: 10.1002/wcc.353

Feldman, L. & & Hart, P.S. (2018). Is there any hope? How climate change news imagery and text influence audience emotions and support for climate mitigation. Risk Analysis 38 (3), 585-602.

Goldberg, M.H., van der Linden, S., Maibach, E., & Leiserowitza A. (2019). Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science. PNAS 116 (30), 14804-14805.

Hart, P.S., & Nisbetz, E.C. (2012) Boomerang Effects in Science Communication:How Motivated Reasoning and Identity Cues Amplify Opinion Polarization About Climate Mitigation Policies. Communication Research 39(6), 701–723.

Jones, C., Hine, D.W., & Marks, A.D.G. (2017). The Future is Now: Reducing Psychological Distance to Increase Public Engagement with Climate Change. Risk Analysis 37 (2), 331-341. DOI: 10.1111/risa.12601

Kahan, D.M. (2008). Cultural Cognition as a Conception of the Cultural Theory of RiskIn: S.Roeser (Ed.), Handbook of Risk Theory (pp. 8-20). Berlin and New York: Springer Publishing.

Kahan, D.M. (2014). Making Climate-Science Communication Evidence-Based All the Way Down. In: Crow, D.A., Boykoff, M.T. (Eds.) Culture, Politics and Climate Change: How Information Shapes Our Common Future (pp. 203-220). London and New York: Earthscan/Routledge.

Moser, S.C. (2016). Reflections on climate change communication research and practice in the second decade of the 21st century: what more is there to say? WIREs Climate Change 7, 345–369.doi: 10.1002/wcc.403

O’Neill S.J., Boykoff, M., Niemeyer, S., & Day, S.A. (2013). On the use of imagery for climate change engagement. Global Environmental Change, 1-9.

Pearce, W., Brown, B., Nerlich, B., & Koteyko, N. (2015).Communicating climate change: conduits, content, and consensus. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews: Climate change 6 (6), 613-626.

van der Linden, S., Maibach, E., & Leiserowitz, A. (2015). Improving Public Engagement With Climate Change: Five “Best Practice” Insights from Psychological Science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1-6. DOI: 10.1177/1745691615598516

van der Linden, S. A (2016). Conceptual Critique of the Cultural Cognition Thesis. Science Communication, 38(1), 1–11. DOI: 10.1177/1075547015614970


Lakoff, G. (1999). Metaphorical Thought in Foreign Policy Why Strategic Framing Matters. The Frameworks Institute. 36pp.

Lakoff, G. (2003). Framing the Dems. The American Prospect Aug. 20, 2003.

Lakoff, G. (2006). Simple Framing. Rockridge Institute.

Lakoff, G.  (2010). Why it Matters How We Frame the Environment, Environmental Communication, 4:1, 70-81, DOI: 10.1080/17524030903529749

Lakoff, G. (2011). How to Frame Yourself: A Framing Memo for Occupy Wall Street.

Myers, T., Nisbet, M.C., Maibach, E.W., & Leiserowitz, A.A. (2012). A public health frame arouses hopeful emotions about climate change. Climatic Change 113, 1105–1112. 

Schultz, P.W. & Zelezny (2003). Reframing Environmental Messages to be Congruent with American Values.Human Ecology Review Special Issue: Conservation Psychology (Winter) 10(20), 126-136.


     Ethics of Behavior Change

Bovens, L. (2008). The Ethics of Nudge. In T. Grüne-Yanoff and S, O. Hansson (Eds.), Preference Change: Approaches from Philosophy, Economics and Psychology (pp. 1-16). Berlin and New York: Springer.

Sunstein, C.R. (2015). The Ethics of Nudging. Yale Journal on Regulation 32, 413-449.

Van Aaken, A. (2015). Judge the Nudge: In Search of the Legal Limits of Paternalistic Nudging in the EU.  In A. Alemanno & A. L. Sibony (Eds.), Nudge and the Law: A European Perspective (pp. 83–112).  Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing.


     Social Equity

Casillas, C. & Kammen, D.M. (2012). Quantifying the social equity of carbon mitigation strategies. Climate Policy, DOI:10.1080/14693062.2012.669097

Klein, C. J., McKinnon, M.C., Wright, R.T., Possingham, H.P. & Halpern, B.S. (2015). Social equity and the probability of success of biodiversity conservation. Global Environmental Change. 35, 299-306.

Climate Change  

Biello, D. (2007). 10 Solutions for Climate Change. Scientific American News. 4/29/2008.

Braman, D., Kahan, D.M., Peters, E., Wittline, M., & Slovic, P. (2012). The Polarizing Impact of Science Literacy and Numeracy on Perceived Climate Change Risks, Nature Climate Change 2, 732-735.

CAIT Climate Data Explorer. Useful website with information about country-specific climate contributions. 

Center for Carbon Removal (2017) Carbon Removal Policy: Opportunities for Federal Action. Center for Carbon Removal.

CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center).

Climate Central.

Climate Links: A global knowledge portal for climate and development practitioners.

Climate Watch. Useful data site for US and global emissions.

Cool Climate Calculator. Fantastic site for determining individual and household carbon emissions with an opportunity to pledge to reduce.

CO2 emissions 2014. Useful graphics as Sankey diagram and histogram.

Daily CO2. Daily graph showing global CO2 emissions.

Flesher, J. & Swanson, E. (2019). Would you change your behavior for the planet? It’s complicated.Published: September 27, 2019 at 12:47 p.m. | UPDATED: September 27, 2019 at 12:48 p.m.

Gardner, G.T. & Stern, P.C. (2008). The Short List: The Most Effective Actions U.S. Households Can Take to Curb Climate Change. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development. Issues/September-October 2008/gardner-stern-full.html

Global Carbon Atlas.

Global Carbon Budget.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Calculation tools.

Hawken, P. (2017). Drawdown: The most comprehensive plan ever proposed to reverse global warming. NY: Penguin Books. 

Howe, P., Mildenberger, M., Marlon, J., & Leiserowitz, A. (2015). “Geographic variation in opinions on climate change at state and local scales in the USA,”Nature Climate Change 5(6), 596-603. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2583

IPCC (2019)

Jones, C. & Kammen, D.M.  (2014). Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Urban Population Density.  Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2), 895-902.

Leiserowitz, A., & Wang, X.

Le Quéré, Corinne et al. (2018). Global Carbon Budget 2018 Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194, 2018.

Project Drawdown.

National Research Council (2015). Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

The Nature Conservancy (2019). PLAYBOOK FOR CLIMATE ACTION: Pathways for Countries and Businesses.

Sanchez, D.L. Amador, G., Funk, J., & Mach, K.J. (2018). Federal research, development, and demonstration priorities for carbon dioxide removal in the United States. Environ. Res. Lett. 13, 015005.

Scientific American page for climate articles.

Union of Concerned Scientists. Clean Energy and Climate Action: Top 10 Benefits for the United States.

Union of Concerned Scientists.  How a Clean Energy Economy Will Save Consumers and Businesses Money. Union of Concerned Scientists.

Union of Concerned Scientists (2016). The Climate Accountability Scorecard: Ranking Major Fossil Fuel Companies on Climate Deception, Disclosure, and Action. Union of Concerned Scientists.

Union of Concerned Scientists (2018). The 2018 Climate Accountability Scorecard: Insufficient Progress from Major Fossil Fuel Companies.

Union of Concerned Scientists. Each Country's Share of US Emissions.

University of New Hampshire. An Introduction to the Global Carbon Cycle. University of New Hampshire.

Vandenbergh, M.P., Barkenbus, J. & Gilligan, J. (2008). Individual Carbon Emissions: the Low-hanging Fruit. UCLA Law Review 55, 1701-1758.

Vanderbergh, M.P. & Raimi, K.T. (2015) Climate Change: Leveraging Legacy. Ecology Law Quarterly, 42 (1), 139-170.

Vital Metrics. This site provides full lifecycle analysis of environmental impacts with CEDA database. Latest is CEDA5.

World Meteorological Association (2019). The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2018. WMO GREENHOUSE GAS BULLETIN 15(25).

World Resources Institute. Interactive Chart on Global Emitters.

Wynes, S., & Nicholas, K.A., (2017). The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions. Environ. Res. Lett. 12, 074024.

     Climate Change Education

Cordero, E.C., Centeno, D., & Todd, A.M. (2020). The role of climate change education on individual lifetime carbon emissions. PLoS ONE 15(2). pone.0206266


      Oceans and Climate

Gattuso, J.-P., Magnan A.K., Bopp, L., Cheung, W.W.L., Duarte C.M., Hinkel, J., McLeod, E., Micheli, F., Oschlies, A., Williamson, P., Billé, R., Chalstani, V.I., Gates, R.D., Irisson, J.-O., Middelburg, J.J., Pörtner, H.-Ol., & Rau, G.H. (2018). Ocean Solutions to Address Climate Change and Its Effects on Marine Ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science (5), 337.

National Research Council, (2010). Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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